PostgreSQL is a relational database management system. It’s even the world’s most advanced open source one of them. As such, as its core, Postgres solves concurrent access to a set of data and maintains consistency while allowing concurrent operations.

In the PostgreSQL Concurrency series of articles here we did see several aspects of how to handle concurrent use cases of your application design with PostgreSQL. The main thing to remember is that a Database Management System first task is to handle concurrency access to the data for you.

PostgreSQL Concurrency

In a very classic way, we began our approach to concurrency with a presentation of the Data Modification Language: the part of SQL that allows to INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE data. And we went as far designing a small and simple tweeter like application, then using Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream play as a source of tweets!

We then reviewed Isolation and Locking and how PostgreSQL provides strong ACID guarantees in all your transactions. The I in ACID stands for Isolation, and by the way the SQL standard comes with four different isolation levels. The default isolation level in PostgreSQL is read committed where it would be fair to expect repeatable read. It’s quite important that you understand the difference in between those two when designing your application, so be sure to check out that article if you’re not so sure.

The next article in the series then logically deals with Modeling for Concurrency, with benchmarks to compare performances of an UPDATE heavy design and an INSERT mostly design. When dealing with registering and processing of events in PostgreSQL, if you don’t need the processing to be visible at COMMIT time when adding the event, then it’s a good idea to use an INSERT and delayed processing approach.

If you do that though, then how to implement the delayed processing? Well I’m glad you’re asking, and there are more than one way to answer that:

  • In Computing and Caching, we see how to use a MATERIALIZED VIEW to get a fixed snapshot of the data, and then easily REFRESH it to implement the application’s cache invalidation policy.

    This technique is well adapted to use cases where you want to rebuild your cache every once in a while, maybe every night, or several times a day, down to maybe every five minutes if the refreshing of the cache is really fast.

  • In PostgreSQL Event Based Processing we see how to use TRIGGERs to maintain a transactionally correct cache, and the impact of such a choice on the scalability properties of your database backend.

    This solution is well suited to use case where the application only receives a small amount of UPDATE traffic, and quite far apart, and can’t tolerate any lag when using the cache.

  • In PostgreSQL LISTEN/NOTIFY we see how to build an online cache maintenance service with PostgreSQL’s advanced notification features.

    This solution is well suited to use cases where a small amount of lag can be tolerated, up to maybe some seconds, most typically measured in the hundreds of milliseconds.

Another important activity where we need to carefully deal with concurrency issues is when processing batches of new data to merge with the current dataset. The article Batch Updates and Concurrency deals with that and introduces some advanced PostgreSQL support.

And rather than waving away at using cron jobs to implement batch activities, the article Scheduled Data Processing: How to use cron? details a full technical solution to implemeting those bacthes… still on-top of cron.


The whole article series is extracted from my book The Art of PostgreSQL, which teaches SQL to developers so that they may replace thousands of lines of code with very simple queries. The book has a full chapter about Data Manipulation and Concurrency Control in PostgreSQL, including caching with materialized views, check it out!