PostgreSQL is a relational database management system. It’s even the world’s most advanced open source one of them. As such, as its core, Postgres solves concurrent access to a set of data and maintains consistency while allowing concurrent operations.

This article is a primer on PostgreSQL Isolation and Locking properties and behaviors. You might be interested into the previous article in the series: PostgreSQL Concurrency: Data Modification Language.

Isolation and Locking

The main feature of any database system is its implementation of concurrency and full respect of the system’s constraints and properties when multiple transactions are modifying the state of the system at the same time.

PostgreSQL is fully ACID compliant and implements transactions isolation so that your application’s concurrency can be dealt with gracefully. Concurrency is a tricky and complex problem, and concurrency issues are often hard to reproduce. That’s why it’s best to rely on existing solutions for handling concurrency rather than rolling your own.

Dealing with concurrency issues in programming languages usually involves proper declaration and use of lock, mutex, and semaphore facilities which make a clever use of atomic operations as supported by your CPU, and sometimes provided by the operating system. Some programming languages such as Java offer synchronized blocks that in turn make use of previously listed low-level features. Other programming languages such as Erlang only implement message passing facilities, and handle concurrency internally (in a mailbox system) so that you don’t have to.

SQL is a declarative programming language, where our role as developers is to declare our intention: the result we want to achieve. The implementation is then tasked with implementing our command and making it right in every detail, including concurrency behavior.

PostgreSQL implementation of the concurrency behavior is dependable and allows some user control in terms of locking aspects of your queries.


This article is extracted from my book Mastering PostgreSQL in Application Development, which teaches SQL to developers so that they may replace thousands of lines of code with very simple queries. The book has a full chapter about Data Manipulation and Concurrency Control in PostgreSQL, including caching with materialized views, check it out!


Transactions and Isolation

Given the ACID properties, a transaction must be Isolated from other concurrent transactions running in the system. It is possible to choose the level of isolation from the concurrent activity, depending on your use case.

A simple use case for isolation is online backups. The backup application for PostgreSQL is pg_dump, and the role of this application is to take a snapshot of your whole database and export it to a backup file. This requires that pg_dump reads are completely isolated from any concurrent write activity in the system, and this is obtained with the isolation level repeatable read or serializable as described next.

From PostgreSQL version 9.1 onward, pg_dump uses the isolation level serializable. It used to be repeatable read until SSI implementation… more on that later.

Transaction isolation is defined by the SQL standard and implemented in PostgreSQL:

The SQL standard defines four levels of transaction isolation. The most strict is Serializable, which is defined by the standard in a paragraph which says that any concurrent execution of a set of Serializable transactions is guaranteed to produce the same effect as running them one at a time in some order. The other three levels are defined in terms of phenomena, resulting from interaction between concurrent transactions, which must not occur at each level. The standard notes that due to the definition of Serializable, none of these phenomena are possible at that level. (This is hardly surprising – if the effect of the transactions must be consistent with having been run one at a time, how could you see any phenomena caused by interactions?)

Still quoting the PostgreSQL documentation, here are the phenomena which are prohibited at various levels are:

  • Dirty read

    A transaction reads data written by a concurrent uncommitted transaction.

  • Nonrepeatable read

    A transaction re-reads data it has previously read and finds that data has been modified by another transaction (that committed since the initial read).

  • Phantom read

    A transaction re-executes a query returning a set of rows that satisfy a search condition and finds that the set of rows satisfying the condition has changed due to another recently committed transaction.

  • Serialization anomaly

    The result of successfully committing a group of transactions is inconsistent with all possible orderings of running those transactions one at a time.

There are four isolation levels defined by the standard: read uncommitted, read committed, repeatable read, and serializable. PostgreSQL doesn’t implement read uncommitted, which allows dirty reads, and instead defaults to read committed.

The definition of those isolation levels says that read committed disallows dirty read anomalies, repeatable read disallows dirty read and nonrepeatable read, and serializable disallows all anomalies.

PostgreSQL also disallows phantom read from repeatable read isolation level.

About SSI

PostgreSQL’s implementation of serializable is an amazing work. It is described in details at the PostgreSQL wiki page entitled Serializable, and the wiki page SSI contains more details about how to use it.

It took about 20 years for the research community to come up with a satisfying mathematical model for implementing serializable snapshot isolation in an efficient way, and then a single year for that major progress to be included in PostgreSQL!

Concurrent Updates and Isolation

In our tweet model of an application, we can have a look at handling retweets, which is a counter field in the tweet.message table.

The application model for Tweeting is introduced in the first article of this series:PostgreSQL Concurrency: Data Modification Language.

Here’s how to make a retweet in our model:

update tweet.message
   set rts = rts + 1
 where messageid = 1;

Now, what happens if two users are doing that at the same time?

To better understand what at the same time means here, we can write the query extended with manual transaction control, as PostgreSQL will do when sent a single command without an explicit transaction:

begin;

   update tweet.message
      set rts = rts + 1
    where messageid = 1;
returning messageid, rts;

commit;

Now, rather than doing this query, we open a psql prompt and send in:

begin;

   update tweet.message
      set rts = rts + 1
    where messageid = 1
returning messageid, rts;

We get the following result now:

 messageid │ rts 
═══════════╪═════
         1 │   2
(1 row)

The transaction remains open (it’s idle in transaction) and waits for us to do something else, or maybe commit or rollback the transaction.

Now, open a second psql prompt and send in the exact same query. This time the update doesn’t return. There’s no way it could: the first transaction is not done yet and is working on the row where messageid = 1. Until the first transaction is done, no concurrent activity can take place on this specific row.

So we go back to the first prompt and commit.

Then what happens depends on the isolation level required. Here we have the default isolation level read committed, and at the second prompt the update command is unlocked and proceeds to immediately return:

 messageid │ rts 
═══════════╪═════
         1 │   3
(1 row)

Now for the following examples, we need to review our psql setting for the ON_ERROR_ROLLBACK feature. When set to true or interactive, then psql issues savepoints to protect each outer transaction state, and that will hide what we’re showing next. Type the following command to momentarily disable this helpful setting, so that we can see what really happens:

\set ON_ERROR_ROLLBACK off

If we pick the isolation level repeatable read, with the following syntax:

start transaction isolation level repeatable read;

   update tweet.message
      set rts = rts + 1
    where messageid = 1
returning messageid, rts;

Again, we leave the transaction open, switch to a second prompt and do the same thing, and only then — while the second update is waiting for the first transaction to finish — commit the first transactions. What we get this time is this:

ERROR:  could not serialize access due to concurrent update

yesql!# commit;
ROLLBACK

Also notice that even if we ask for a COMMIT, what we get is a ROLLBACK. Once an error occurs in a transaction, in PostgreSQL, the transaction can’t commit anymore.

When using the isolation level serializable, the same behavior as for repeatable read is observed, with exactly the same error message exactly.

Conclusion

PostgreSQL is an advanced RDBMS, with a solid foundation. The main service PostgreSQL implements to its users is a correct handling of concurrent operations. In the SQL model, that means handling both transactions and isolation levels.

The next article in this series is going to show how to model your database schema to make it a better fit for high concurrent updates, stay tuned!