In our previous article about Loading Geolocation Data, we did load some data into PostgreSQL and saw the quite noticable impact of a user transformation. As it happens, the function that did the integer to IP representation was so naive as to scratch the micro optimisation itch of some Common Lisp hackers: thanks a lot guys, in particular stassats who came up with the solution we’re seeing now.

The previous code was a straight rewrite of the provided documentation in Common Lisp. See for yourself the docs as found at

integer_ip = 2921648058

o1 = int ( ipnum / 16777216 ) % 256;
o2 = int ( ipnum / 65536    ) % 256;
o3 = int ( ipnum / 256      ) % 256;
o4 = int ( ipnum            ) % 256;

address = ( o1, o2, o3, o4 ).join('.')

And the code I came up with:

(defun ip-range (start-integer-string end-integer-string)
  "Transform a couple of integers to an IP4R ip range notation."
  (declare (inline)
	   (optimize speed)
	   (type string start-integer-string end-integer-string))
  (flet ((integer-to-ip-string (int)
	   (declare (inline) (optimize speed) (type fixnum int))
	   (format nil "~a.~a.~a.~a"
		   (mod (truncate int #. (expt 2 24)) 256)
		   (mod (truncate int #. (expt 2 16)) 256)
		   (mod (truncate int #. (expt 2 8)) 256)
		   (mod int 256))))
    (let ((ip-start (integer-to-ip-string (parse-integer start-integer-string)))
	  (ip-end   (integer-to-ip-string (parse-integer end-integer-string))))
      (format nil "~a-~a" ip-start ip-end))))

Quite a direct naive implementation. Which is good to show what you can expect in a kind of a worst case, and that worst case was using 31.546 seconds rather than 17.425 seconds when not doing any conversion. Well of course the python code was spending 78.979 seconds for not doing any conversion, but that’s not the topic today.

Let’s now see one of the micro optimised solution, the one I picked among a list of 8 different proposal, each a little more crazy than the previous one:

(declaim (inline int-to-ip))
(defun int-to-ip (int)
  "Transform an IP as integer into its dotted notation, optimised code from
  (declare (optimize speed)
           (type (unsigned-byte 32) int))
  (let ((table (load-time-value
                (let ((vec (make-array (+ 1 #xFFFF))))
                  (loop for i to #xFFFF
		     do (setf (aref vec i)
			      (coerce (format nil "~a.~a"
					      (ldb (byte 8 8) i)
					      (ldb (byte 8 0) i))
    (declare (type (simple-array simple-base-string (*)) table))
    (concatenate 'simple-base-string
		 (aref table (ldb (byte 16 16) int))
		 (aref table (ldb (byte 16 0) int)))))

(declaim (inline ip-range))
(defun ip-range (start-integer-string end-integer-string)
  "Transform a couple of integers to an IP4R ip range notation."
  (declare (optimize speed)
	   (type string start-integer-string end-integer-string))
  (let ((ip-start (int-to-ip (parse-integer start-integer-string)))
	(ip-end   (int-to-ip (parse-integer end-integer-string))))
    (concatenate 'simple-base-string ip-start "-" ip-end)))

As usual the idea is to compute all you can in advance, here thanks to the load-time-value special operator that’s part of the Common Lisp Standard. So we compute a table of all the dotted representation for a pair of two bytes, and we do that computation at load time, which happens when you load the compiled code artifact you generated from your sources. Then all we have to do is take the upper and lower bytes, fetch their representation in our table, and concatenate both with a middle dot.

The reason why we only keep 2 bytes in the table is so that we don’t require about 64 GB of memory to be able to transform ip addresses…

*Even after all those years, either compute again or store in memory.*

And what do we have now?

                    table name       read   imported     errors       time
------------------------------  ---------  ---------  ---------  ---------
                       extract          0          0          0       1.01
                   before load          0          0          0      0.077
------------------------------  ---------  ---------  ---------  ---------
              geolite.location     438386     438386          0     10.352
                geolite.blocks    1790461    1790461          0     18.045
------------------------------  ---------  ---------  ---------  ---------
                       finally          0          0          0     31.108
------------------------------  ---------  ---------  ---------  ---------
             Total import time    2228847    2228847          0   1m0.592s

Thanks to the optimisation, the two bigint as text to iprange as text transformation now has an added cost of 620 ms with our data set. The whole file loading is now averaging to 10.07841 µs per row, or just a tad more than 10 microseconds per row, transformation included this time.

Less than a second of added cost within a complete process taking around a minute, that basically means that the transformation is now free.

Despite what you might have read elsewhere, my experience with the Common Lisp Community so far really is great!