Using indexes as column store?
There’s a big trend nowadays about using column storage as opposed to what PostgreSQL is doing, which would be row storage. The difference is that if you have the same column value in a lot of rows, you could get to a point where you have this value only once in the underlying storage file. That means high compression. Then you tweak the executor to be able to load this value only once, not once per row, and you win another huge source of data traffic (often enough, from disk).
Well, it occurs to me that maybe we could have column oriented storage support without adding any new storage facility into PostgreSQL itself, just using in new ways what we already have now. Column oriented storage looks somewhat like an index, where any given value is meant to appear only once. And you have links to know where to find the full row associated in the main storage.
There’s a work in progress to allow for PostgreSQL to use indexes on their own, without having to get to the main storage for checking the visibility. That’s known as the Visibility Map, which is still only a hint in released versions. The goal is to turn that into a crash-safe trustworthy source in the future, so that we get covering indexes. That means we can use an index and skip getting to the full row in main storage and get the visibility information there.
Now, once we have that, we could consider using the indexes in more queries. It could be a win to get the column values from the index when possible and if you don’t output more columns from the heap, return the values from there. Scanning the index only once per value, not once per row.
There’s a little more though on the point in the Next Generation PostgreSQL article I’ve been referencing already, should you be interested.