In a previous article about Trigger Parameters we have been using the extension hstore in order to compute some extra field in our records, where the fields used both for the computation and for storing the results were passed in as dynamic parameters. Today we’re going to see another trigger use case for hstore: we are going to record changes made to our tuples.

Comparing hstores

One of the operators that hstore propose is the hstore - hstore operator whose documentation says that it will delete matching pairs from left operand.

> select   'f1 => a, f2 => x'::hstore
         - 'f1 => b, f2 => x'::hstore
         as diff;
(1 row)

That’s what we’re going to use in our changes auditing trigger now, because it’s pretty useful a format to understand what did change.

Auditing changes with a trigger

First we need some setup, a couple of tables to use in our worked out example:

create table example
   id   serial,
   f1   text,
   f2   text

create table audit
  change_date timestamptz default now(),
  before hstore,
  after  hstore

The idea is to add a row in the audit table each time it is updated, with the hstore representation of the data in flight before and after the change. So as to avoid the problem of not being able to easily rebuild the current value of a row at any time in the history, we’re going to store a couple of full hstore representations here.

create function audit()
  returns trigger
  language plpgsql
as $$
  INSERT INTO audit(before, after)
       SELECT hstore(old), hstore(new);
  return new;

I can’t help but visualize triggers this way…

Now, we need to attach the trigger to the table which is the source of our events. Note that we could attach the same trigger to any table in fact, as the details of the audit table has nothing specific about the example table. If you want to do that, though, you will certainly want to add the name of the source table of the event you’re processing, available from within your trigger as TG_TABLE_NAME. Oh and maybe add TG_TABLE_SCHEMA while at it!

Be sure to check the PL/pgSQL Trigger Procedures documentation.

create trigger audit
      after update on example
          for each row
 execute procedure audit();

Testing it

With that in place, let’s try it out:

> insert into example(id, f1, f2) values(1, 'a', 'a');
> update example set f1 = 'b' where id = 1;
> update example set f2 = 'c' where id = 1;

And here’s what we can see:

> select change_date,
         after - before as diff
    from audit;
          change_date          |   diff    
 2013-08-27 17:59:19.808217+02 | "f1"=>"b"
 2013-08-27 17:59:19.808217+02 | "f2"=>"c"
(2 rows)

The hstore extension is really useful and versatile, and we just saw another use case for it!